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In other industry segments, such as pharmaceutical manufacturing, where high value or highly regulated products may be produced, it is the prod- ucts that dictate plant structure. An equipment enclosure may be used to provide a cleanroom environment supported by special air handling sys- tems to keep the temperature, humidity, and air quality within desired limits. Thus, depending on the plant location or the type of product pro- duced, the processing equipment may be contained in enclosures as illus- trated in Figure Figure Plant with Enclosed Construction In contrast to these examples of enclosed plant construction, in many pro- cess industry segments, such as chemical processing and refining, it is common to locate the plant in a region characterized by a moderate cli- mate and for some or all of the process equipment to be in the open, with no protection from the outside elements.
In these cases the process equip- ment must be designed to operate without disruption in spite of changes in outside air temperature and occasional rain storms. The primary moti- vation for this type of open construction is the savings achieved by elimi- nating the housing for process equipment. When there is no need for the protection provide by an enclosure, the equipment will be located outside as illustrated in Figure Plant with Open Construction When process equipment is located in the open, precautions must be taken to minimize heat loss.
For example, the process lines that carry fluid and gas throughout the process are commonly encased by a heavy layer of insulation. To secure the insulation and provide added protection from physical damage, it is quite common to install a thin metallic covering, such as stainless steel, over the insulation.
When viewing the plant from a distance, it may appear that the process lines are large stainless steel pipes but they are, in fact, much smaller pipes that have been insulated. Other process equipment such as reactors and heat exchangers that operate at elevated temperatures are also normally insulated to minimize heat loss and thus improve overall operating efficiency.
Even storage tanks in the plant may be insulated if the material in a tank is normally above ambient temperature. In locations with open construction where the outside tem- perature may drop below freezing, it is often necessary to include electri- cal heating bands or small steam lines, known as steam tracing, around the process pipes and instrumentation sensing lines to ensure that the material in these pipes and sensing lines does not freeze.
Protection may also be required for the wiring associated with the field instrumentation that is used to measure the process conditions, such as pressure, temperature, flow and level, and with the field devices that are used to regulate those conditions throughout the process. The wiring to field devices for measurement and actuation is often supported and pro- tected by cable trays. Electrical cables used to power motors in the process may also be run in cable trays.
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To avoid electrical interference, however, the cable trays containing instrument wiring normally do not contain elec- trical cables. Wiring from the cable tray to an individual field device is often enclosed in conduit to protect the wiring from physical damage as shown in Figure Cable Tray and Conduit for Instrumentation Wiring The manner in which wiring is installed in the plant is dictated by electri- cal code.
If there is a high probability of fire or explosion in the process because of the products that are produced, then the instrumentation wir- ing to field devices may be located underground to avoid wiring being damaged by fire or explosion. Such underground construction can make it difficult to add new field devices to the process unless spare cables are run during initial plant construction.
Thus, there is some variation in the way the instrumentation and electrical power wiring is done depending on the industry and the standards followed in the country where the plant is located. In this section, an overview is provided of plant organization. If a person is given direc- tions on how to reach a piece of equipment in the plant, then these direc- tions may include a reference to the process area where the equipment is located.
Area names are nor- mally assigned during plant design to make it easier to identify different parts of the plant. In any discussion of plant operations, it is helpful to be aware of the names of the process areas within the plant.
Process Area — Functional grouping of equipment within a plant. In addition to giving each process area a name, it is customary to assign a number that also identifies the process area. For example, in a specialty chemical process plant, the carbonator area may be assigned Area number In this case, this physical section of the plant would be referred to as the carbonator area or by its area number ; the two references are inter- changeable. As will be discussed in the chapter on plant documentation, many of the documents associated with control system design are orga- nized by plant area.
Also, the number assigned to a plant area is often con- tained within the identifier assigned to field devices and the area number and name are contained in the documentation for these field devices. The concept of process area divisions is fundamental to plant design and directly impacts the way the plant is described and documented.
For example, the steam and elec- tricity used in the process may be provided by multiple boilers and turbo- generators located in the powerhouse area. Nearly identical boilers may be used in the powerhouse to meet the changing steam and electricity demands of the plant. When multiple similar pieces of equipment are installed in a process area, these pieces of equipment are referred to as process units.
In the powerhouse area, the boilers may be identified by unit number, for example, as power boilers 1, 2, and 3. Process units — Pieces of equipment in a process area that are similar in construction and function.
The number of process units that are contained in a process area may vary significantly depending on the product being manufactured and the plant capacity. In many applications, there are physical limitations that dictate the maximum capability of a process unit.
Thus, to achieve a target pro- duction level, multiple units may be needed. Also, in some cases, such as power boilers, the best operating efficiency is achieved when the equip- ment is operating at its design steam production. Even though the process units making up a process area may appear iden- tical in function and construction, it often turns out that there are differ- ences, such as the positioning of instrumentation on the equipment, which impacts equipment performance and the commissioning of the control system.
Even so, from the perspective of system design and process con- trol, each process unit in a process area is treated the same. As we saw in Chapter 1, this is referred to as a continuous process. Continuous process — Process that continuously receives raw materials and continuously processes them into an intermediate or final product. This continuous flow of raw materials is typically converted into a prod- uct through heating, mixing, and reaction. A continuous process is designed to operate over a range of production and operating conditions.
In many cases, the product produced using a continuous process may flow into a tank for storage before being packaged and shipped or before being further processed. In some cases, the output of a continuous process will be immediately used as the feedstock for a downstream continuous process.
For example, the steam produced by a boiler is immediately used by other processes within the plant. As was also mentioned in Chapter 1, some products are produced using batch processes in which the final product is manufactured through a series of discrete steps.
Fermentation processes, such as are used in the manufacture of beer, and other key processes in the food industry are often designed as batch processes. Batch processing is also used in many other industry segments, such as specialty chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Batch process — Process that receives materials and pro- cesses them into an intermediate or final product using a series of discrete steps. In a batch process, the use of multiple process units may provide added flexibility in scheduling production.
For example, in the specialty chemical industry the production schedule may be made up of many small batch runs in which different products are manufactured. Batch control systems that are designed to support the concept of process units commonly allow standard unit templates to be defined that represent the particular instru- mentation used with each unit.
Thus, the process unit plays an important role in batch recipe definition. Also, the operator is responsible for changing area pro- duction rates to achieve planned plant production targets. Plant operator — Person responsible for the minute-to- minute operation of one or more process areas within a plant.
The number of process areas assigned to an operator varies depending on process complexity, the number of pieces of equipment within each pro- cess area, and the degree of automation that is provided by the process control system. The plant operator normally works from a control room that contains an interface to the process control system.
Control room — Room in which the plant operator works. Traditionally, control rooms have been physically located close to the pro- cess areas that they control. For example, if an operator is responsible for steam and electrical generation, then the control room might be located in the powerhouse area of the plant. In contrast to this, many large refineries have consolidated all their area control rooms into a single central control room.
Other segments of the process industry are also trending this way. In his or her job, the operator interacts with the control system to for example start and stop pumps, open and close valves and change the operating targets maintained by the control system. To achieve this level of understanding, an operator must have years of hands-on experience with the process, experience often gained by starting work in the plant in an entry-level position know as an operator helper and gradually working his or her way up to the position of plant operator.
In addition, there may be different levels of plant operators, depending on the company. To achieve certification for each operator position, it is often necessary to pass formal tests on the process and the associated control system. To advance, it is necessary to show proficiency at the next level of operation.
As an engineer, when you are working in and around the control room, it is important to always remember that the plant operator is ultimately responsible for running the plant. In many cases, it is nec- essary to initiate a work order to formally request permission to make a change of any significance in the control system or the associated instru- mentation.
Depending on company policies, such work orders may need to be reviewed by a safety panel to ensure that the work can be done with- out introducing a safety risk into plant operation.
When installing or commissioning a control system, it is a good practice to work closely with the operator since the operator is ultimately responsible for the process area operation. Where possible it is beneficial to directly involve the operator in any dis- cussion of changes that are being made to the control system during instal- lation or commissioning. Unfortunately, a person who is unfamiliar with plant operations may make the mistake of ignoring or bypassing the oper- ator.
The authors have found that when you are working in a plant environment, it is always a good idea to have the operator on your side. By including the opera- tor in these discussions and leveraging their understanding, there is both less risk of doing the wrong thing and better buy-in by the operator. In fact, by including the plant operators, they will go out of their way to enable changes that are needed in the control system and thus will con- tribute in a positive way to this work.
Depending on the size of the plant, there may be one or more maintenance shops that include instrumentation and control groups. Usually associated with a maintenance shop is a storage area that contains spare parts and spare field instruments. Also, the maintenance shop may include a machine shop that contains the tools and equipment needed to repair valves and other mechanical components critical to plant operation. Most process plants include one or more laboratories that are centrally located in the plant or distributed throughout the process areas.
Labs are critical to the plant operation since lab analysis of raw materials feed- stock and process product may be required to identify variations that could impact the process operation. Such on-line analyzers may be too expensive, may have proven to be unreliable, or simply may not be practical because of the complexity of the sampling system or the complexity of the analysis.
As a result, manual sampling and lab analysis are often a requirement. When lab analysis is required to support plant operations, samples of the associated material are manually taken from the process and then trans- ported to the lab for analysis. The collection of these samples, known as grab samples, is normally performed by the operator helper or a lab tech- nician. Results from the lab analysis of these samples are used by the oper- ator to adjust the process to meet quality requirements.
Grab sample — Manually acquired sample of process prod- uct or feed material taken for lab analysis. If the steps associated with an analysis are straightforward, then in some cases the grab sample may be processed by the operator helper at a test stand physically close to the process. One of the key objectives of a process control system is to maintain the product quality parameters within specifications. When a measurement of product quality is only available from the lab, the delay associated with processing the sample and the fact that this measurement is not continu- ously available impacts the way this information may be used to control the process.
In many cases, these lab measurements are used by the operator to manu- ally make corrections in the process, such as changing feed flows or oper- ating targets called set points such as temperature that impact the parameter s reflected in the lab test.
However, specialized techniques do exist to automatically adjust the process based on entering the results of lab analysis into the control system. Where the capability is supported to automatically correct process operation based on lab results, an interface in the control system is normally provided that allows the operator or lab technician to manually enter lab results into the control system; the control system then makes the appropriate changes.
Alternatively, when a Lab Management System exists, lab testing equipment may be interfaced directly with the control system to allow the results of the lab analysis to be automatically communicated to the control system as soon as the grab sample is processed.
Some of these techniques for dealing with lab analy- sis are addressed in Chapter 4, On-line Estimator. An example of a lab for analysis of grab samples is shown in Figure Some general rules apply to all plant situations. However, each plant has its own site-specific rules that are often covered in a safety video that must be shown to any- one entering the plant for the first time.
After the video is viewed, a test may be administered on the material covered in the video. Only after passing this test will a visitor be issued a pass that allows them to enter the plant.
It is also common for visitors to be allowed to work in the plant only when they are accompanied by a plant employee who is familiar with the plant layout and the safety regulations. In many plants, there are restrictions on the type of clothing that may be worn; for example, long sleeved shirts or safety shoes may be required.
In a facility where a hazardous gas release is possible in a section of the plant, visitors working in that section may be issued a respirator and given instruction in its use. In such cases, the plant may not allow a beard to be worn since this could prevent the respirator from fitting snugly around the face. Most of the requirements associated with working in a plant are pretty much common sense, and in addition, visitors can expect to be made aware of plant rules and procedures.
Many of the guidelines discussed in this paper are especially applicable to engineers doing this type of work. The original concept of feedback con- trol that are addressed in later chapters is often attributed to work by Ktesibios in Greece around the third century BC when he implemented a float valve regulator to maintain a constant level in a vessel .
Even at this early time, there was a need to automatically maintain a process parameter the level of fluid in a tank at a desired value. When steam power came about during the Industrial Revolution starting in the early s and going though the early s, there was a real need for automatic control. The generation and use of steam power first used in the early s is a coordinated effort in which fuel is burnt with an appro- priate amount of air, steam is generated, and the steam is then used to power a steam engine that drives mechanical devices within the plant.
The amount of steam required is a function of the plant production rate or throughput. Thus, there was a need to adjust the amount of energy deliv- ered to the process, that is, to be able to maintain various speeds of opera- tion. The mechanical governors developed to automatically maintain operational speed under varying conditions of load are another example of proportional-only control implemented with mechanical devices.
Such control was successfully applied in the regulation of rotative steam engines . The modern process control system has its roots in developments that go back to the late s and early s. For example, Fisher Controls, which is one of the largest manufacturers of regulating control valves in the world, was initially established in the late s by William Fisher.
Fisher was a volunteer fireman in a small town in Iowa. Every time there was a fire, the water pressure to the town dropped as a result of the increased water demand.
To compensate for this drop in pressure, it was necessary to manually adjust a supply valve. So Bill Fisher, being a resourceful person, found a way to automatically maintain the water pres- sure.
The mechanism he built sensed the pressure and automatically adjusted the valve to keep the pressure in the desired range. From this humble beginning, he started building pressure regulators, valves, mechanical regulators and later pneumatic controllers. The first large-scale automatic control systems used in the process indus- try were based on using air pressure for process measurement and valve actuation, and pneumatic logic circuits for control.
Pneumatic control system — System that relies on a pres- surized air supply for the operation of process measure- ment, control, and actuation devices. Unlike mechanical control systems, pneumatic control systems allowed companies to place process controllers in control rooms located in the major process areas of the plant, remote from the measurement devices and actuators. A whole industry sprang up based upon developing and manufacturing controllers that were much more capable than the propor- tional-only mechanical control systems.
The first versions of the propor- tional, integral, and directive-type PID controllers that will be discussed in detail in later chapters were first introduced at that time as pneumatic controllers. The ability to calculate parameters such as the average of two measurements was provided by computing elements based on pneumatic logic circuits.
These devices could be used to implement many of the con- trol techniques that form the core functionality of most distributed control systems today. As electronic components became available for circuit design, some com- panies built electronic PID controllers using vacuum tubes. These early electronic controllers were costly, consumed a significant amount of power, and were not very reliable. Thus, these early electronic controllers found limited acceptance in the process industry. The first widespread use of electronic control systems came after the invention of the transistor and the commercialization of this technology.
The costs of these devices reached a level that made it practical to introduce self-contained electronic PID analog controllers and computing elements and, for the first time, analog electronic field devices. Electronic control system — System that relies on electric power for the operation of process measurement control and actuators. These elec- tronic controllers were most often mounted in a long panel in the control room similar in many ways to the panels previously used to mount pneu- matic controllers.
The panel also included electronic paper chart recorders for critical process parameters, to allow any variations in operation to be permanently recorded.
Pushbutton interfaces were mounted in the panel for the operator to start or stop pumps and open or close critical blocking valves and other functions, such as initiation of emergency shutdown of a unit, as illustrated in Figure Even so, pneumatic control can still be found even today in some stand-alone applications.
Some pneumatic control systems in use today have been in service for 20 or 30 years and most have done a good job. However, in many cases these systems can no longer be maintained and are being replaced with elec- tronic control systems. Panel-based Analog Electronic Control System Even in the early panel-based electronic systems, there was the concept of using alarms to notify the operator of an abnormal operating condition. Such notification was provided using annunciator panels mounted in the control panel.
On detection of an alarm condition, the annunciator panel lit up, indicating the type of alarm e. Panel-based electronic control systems were expensive to construct and required considerable floor space. To minimize the need for change, it was nec- essary to carefully design the control and alarm panel. Control panel — Wall containing controllers, annunciators, and other components used by an operator. Early versions of chart recorders used circular paper on which the mea- surement values were plotted using ink pens to record selected process measurement values, as illustrated in Figure As this technology devel- oped, chart recorders were designed to use a long piece of folded chart paper on which multiple pens were used to record these measurements.
The maintenance of both types of recorders was quite high and consider- able time was required to change the pens and paper. Circular Chart Recorder in a Control Panel In many cases, the control panels were quite long and were often filled with self contained PID controllers, recorders and indicator dials that the operator monitored by walking up and down the panel, looking to see if anything was wrong. Such an arrangement, and the physical length of a panel, often made it difficult for the operator to quickly respond to a pro- cess upset.
The control panel wiring was contained in the back of the panel. Because of space limitations, it was difficult to modify wiring or to troubleshoot the source of a problem in a controller mounted in the panel. An example of the wiring found in a panel installation is shown in Figure Control Panel Wiring As illustrated in this example, the manner in which wiring was bundled together to save space could make it difficult to trace a wire.
The labeling of wires and terminations was an essential part of panel design and instal- lation. This labor intensive documenting of the wiring contributed to the cost of panel construction and associated system documentation. Since at that time computers were very expensive, the digital control tended to be centralized into one computer and was often restricted to a few critical control functions in continuous processes or to the automation of batch operations.
Backup analog con- trols that supported local or computer control were used to avoid any loss of production when the computer was down because of a hardware or software failure. Rather than accessing measurement values as an electric current, it became possible to digitally communicate measurement values and asso- ciated diagnostic information about the transmitter over a coax cable at fairly high baud rates.
The primary means of control, the PID controller, could be implemented in software. The electronic devices known as multi-loop controllers were introduced to address multiple measurement and control requirements and thus eliminated the need for individual dedicated hardware control- lers for each PID control function. Multi-loop controller — Device for interfacing to multiple field measurements and actuators for the purpose of calcu- lation and control.
The functions previously provided by dedicated hardware computing ele- ments were now performed by software. Distributed control system — Control system made up of components interconnected through digital communica- tion networks.
The expanded communications capability of these systems gave the sys- tem designer new freedom to distribute the controllers to remote control centers located near to the process and thus reduce the length of wiring runs to field devices. As a result of this distribution of the control system, the size of control rooms and the associated construction costs were reduced.
The need for dedicated pushbuttons and status indicators for motor control were eliminated since these types of discrete measurement and outputs were integrated into the control sys- tem.
It became possible for the operator to view and access all aspects of the process and the control system from the control system monitors and keyboard. In many cases, the only remnant of the control panel that remained was hardwired buttons to shut down the process if operator access to the control system was lost.
The introduction of the digital distributed control system had a major impact on the tools that were available to the operator in performing his or her job. The monitors and keyboard interfaces that were provided in a dis- tributed control system became the window into the process and the only means of working with the control system. Thus, as part of a distributed control system installation, it was necessary to train the operator on this new interface to the process.
The functions provided by the panel-based system were still provided but were implemented in a different manner. This was a big change for the operators, that is, seeing the state of the process by paging through control displays instead of by looking along the panel. To ease operator transition from panel-based systems to monitor-based systems, the manner in which information was displayed on the monitor mimicked the way this information had earlier appeared on the control panel.
The control faceplate that is used in distributed control systems can be traced to the manner in which information was displayed in panel- based analog controllers. Control faceplate — Display screen that mimics the manner in which information was provided on an analog controller. Details of a faceplate, such as showing the low-to-high engineering unit range of the measurement and displaying the value as a small vertical bar, replicated the presentation of the old analog controllers.
Since the control interface provided by the control panel was familiar and had proven to be effective, a similar presentation was adopted in the screen design and dis- play elements used by early distributed control systems. The annunciator panel was replaced by an alarm banner provided in the monitor. Even the circular dial and trend displays of historic information that are supported in most control systems today simply mimic some of the interfaces pro- vided in the panel-based control systems.
When a distributed control system was installed in a plant that had previ- ously had a panel-based control system, it soon became common to take advantage of the flexibility of the new system to improve and streamline plant operations. Control rooms were often centralized as part of the dis- tributed control system.
For example, in a plant that previously had four or five control rooms, each staffed with operators, it became possible to replace all of these rooms with one control room. As a result, the number of operators needed to run the plant could be significantly reduced.
This reduction in manpower was a cost saving for the plant, but more important, this centralization allowed better coordination of production between process areas and thus resulted in improved operating efficiency. Many companies in the process industry quickly adopted this technology for new installations and, where possible, upgraded existing plants with distributed control systems.
Over time, the maintenance associated with older panel-based control systems in such plants can also become an oper- ational problem and added expense. Figure is an overview of the major components that make up a distrib- uted control system.
Distributed Control System Overview The installation of a distributed control system changed nearly every aspect of the design, implementation, checkout, commissioning, opera- tion, and maintenance of the control system, including the tools and skills that were required. For example, the volt-ohm meter was the primary tool that an instrumentation technician used in troubleshooting a panel-based system.
When a fault was found, the physical PID controller or the com- puting element used with the controller could simply be replaced. Since a distributed control system depends heavily on the use of digital communi- cations and functions performed in software by microprocessors, different skills were required to set up, operate, and maintain the control system.
When a distributed control system was first installed in a plant, there was often disagreement about who was going to work with the system soft- ware to define and maintain the functionality associated with measure- ment and control. To work with a distributed control system, a person had to know how to use the tools pro- vided with the system to set up the software to perform the measurement, calculation, control, and display. The significant impact this had can be illustrated by considering the operator interface design.
When installing a panel-based control system, it was necessary to consider the instruments to be included in the panel, come up with a panel layout that fit the allot- ted space and meets operator interface requirements, construct the panel, and install the instruments.
In contrast, when installing a distributed con- trol system, the person responsible for the operator interface had to be familiar with the display capability of the control system and then design and construct displays that allowed the operator to access process infor- mation and interact with the control system in the most efficient manner.
In most cases, distributed control systems come with tools that allowed this setup to be done through a process of configuration, in which functionality may be defined and characterized without having to write software.
System configuration — Specification of measurement, cal- culation, control, and display functions of a control system. To learn the skills needed to do system configuration often meant going to classes provided by the control system manufacturer. In some instances, new control groups with such skills were established in the plant to per- form control system configuration. The transition to distributed control systems was equally disruptive for the plant operator.
When working at a control panel, he or she would make adjustments in the process by pushing buttons or turning knobs to change operating points. Motors were started and stopped using pushbut- tons on the panel.
However, with the installation of a distributed control system, the operator interface was one or more monitors. To make a pro- cess change, he now had to type in the change using a standard or custom keyboard. To ease the transition, it was important to do extensive operator training as part of the control system installation.
Special operator training simula- tors were often constructed from spare parts to allow the operators to work with the system interface in the training class. One of the things that control system manufacturers and companies learned in transitioning to distributed control systems was that when a control system is installed in a plant, it is important to consider and plan for the changes introduced in the way people in the plant will perform their job function.
Control Loop Foundation: Batch and Continuous Processes — Interactive Source for Process Control
The manner in which this transition is addressed can impact the acceptance of the control system and the benefits derived from the installation. The earlier systems only supported the capability of the operator interface to display faceplates and buttons that looked similar to those found on a control panel.
From a design perspective, many of the same skills previously used in panel lay- out could be applied in deciding on the grouping of faceplates and buttons that were contained in a display. When a company installed distributed control systems in multiple areas, it was quite common for a single operator to then be responsible for hun- dreds of loops, motors, and measurements.
In such installations, the approach of only providing faceplates in the operator displays was found to be ineffective.
The primary reason for this was that the only differentia- tion between the numerous displays in the system was the instrument description contained in the faceplate. For an operator to understand the significance of a measurement or control faceplate shown in a display, it was necessary for the operator to read this information.
So, to address this problem, manufacturers soon introduced the concept of graphical dis- plays. In a graphical display, it was possible to show a pictorial represen- tation of the equipment and pipes used in the process and to show measurement values at the point where the measurement was made in the process.
With a graphical display, the operator could immediately recog- nize the area shown and could quickly find the information within the control system. Graphical display — Display containing a pictorial repre- sentation of process equipment and piping along with mea- surement values at the point they are made. Graphical displays were initially used in some of the early installations only to show information about the process. The reason that face- plates were retained as the interface for control was due to the fact that faceplates often contain multiple pieces of information needed by the operator in making a change in the process.
For example, the faceplate would typically contain the following information: To avoid clutter in the display, the status of measurement alarms was indicated by dynamically changing the color of process elements shown in the display. Rather than showing the mode of control, the indication of mode would only appear in the display if the actual mode was different from the normal or expected mode of opera- tion.
Using these techniques, it was possible to show control as well as measurement information on the same screen. In most recent installations of distributed control systems, the operator interface consists primarily of graphical displays, as shown in Figure Operator Interface Graphical Displays When the operator is making adjustments in the operating targets main- tained by the control system, he or she may need more information than is shown in a graphical display.
These dynamos may be added to graphical displays to show some information about a control loop. When the operator selects a dynamo in a graphical display, a faceplate appears in the display area and provides further information about the control loop. As a complement to the flow-diagrams and the descriptions in writing, this books covers the subject. For the price this book is not worth to buy. This is very expensive book, and most of the material in this book, can be googled online.
However the author is knowledgeable. It's a modern book about process control and a help for process engineer in energy and utility jobs. Kindle Edition. Clarity is bad. Figures are too blurred. Content is lacking on project documentation. See all 8 reviews. Amazon Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways in order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract new followers and customers. Learn more about Amazon Giveaway. This item: Set up a giveaway. What other items do customers buy after viewing this item?
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